Madras Treeshrew (Anathana ellioti)
The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species and specialized skin glands in monotremes that seep or ooze milk; the presence of hair or fur; specialized teeth; three minute bones within the ear; the presence of a neocortex region in the brain; and endothermic or "warm-blooded" bodies. The brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart. Mammals encompass some 5,500 species (including humans), distributed in about 1,200 genera, 152 families and up to 46 orders, though this varies with the classification scheme.
The vast majority of mammals have seven cervical vertebrae (bones in the neck); this includes bats, giraffes, whales, and humans. The few exceptions include the manatee and the two-toed sloth, which each have only six cervical vertebrae, and the three-toed sloth with nine cervical vertebrae.
See the section Mammalian lungs in the Lung article.
The mammalian heart has four chambers: the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle. Atria are for receiving blood; ventricles are for pumping blood to the lungs and body. The ventricles are larger than the atria and their walls are thick, because muscular walls are needed to forcefully pump the blood from the heart to the body and lungs. Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium, which pumps it to the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide diffuses out, and oxygen diffuses in. From the lungs, oxygenated blood enters the left atrium, where it is pumped to the left ventricle (the largest and strongest of the 4 chambers), which pumps it out to the rest of the body, including the heart's own blood supply.
Head and brain
All mammalian brains possess a neocortex which is a brain region that is unique to mammals.
Mammals have integumentary systems made up of three layers: the outermost epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. This characteristic is not unique to mammals, since it is found in all vertebrates.
The epidermis is typically ten to thirty cells thick, its main function being to provide a waterproof layer. Its outermost cells are constantly lost; its bottommost cells are constantly dividing and pushing upward. The middle layer, the dermis, is fifteen to forty times thicker than the epidermis. The dermis is made up of many components such as bony structures and blood vessels. The hypodermis is made up of adipose tissue. Its job is to store lipids, and to provide cushioning and insulation. The thickness of this layer varies widely from species to species.
No mammals are known to have hair that is naturally blue or green in color. Some cetaceans, along with the mandrills appear to have shades of blue skin. Many mammals are indicated as having blue hair or fur, but in all known cases, it has been found to be a shade of grey. The two-toed sloth can seem to have green fur, but this color is caused by algae growths.
Most mammals give birth to live young, but a few (the monotremes) lay eggs. Live birth also occurs in some non-mammalian species, such as guppies and hammerhead sharks; thus it is not a distinguishing characteristic of mammals. Although all mammals are endothermic, so are birds, and so this too is not a defining feature.
A characteristic of mammals is that they have mammary glands, a defining feature present only in mammals. The monotremes branched from other mammals early on, and do not have nipples, but they do have mammary glands. Most mammals are terrestrial, but some are aquatic, including sirenia (manatees and dugongs) and the cetaceans (dolphins and whales). Whales are the largest of all animals. There are semi-aquatic species such as seals which come to land to breed but spend most of the time in water.
Mammals belong among the amniotes, and in particular to a group called the synapsids, which are distinguished by the shape of their skulls, having a single hole on each side where jaw muscles attach, called a temporal fenestra. In comparison, dinosaurs, birds, and most reptiles are diapsids, with two temporal fenestrae on each side of the skull; and turtles, with no temporal fenestra, are anapsids.
From the earliest synapsids (such as Archaeothyris), their temporal fenestra expanded as synapsids evolved. In cynodonts, the temporal fenestra is much larger than the pelycosaurs and the primitive therapsids. From cynodonts to mammals, the temporal fenestra has been modified, now no longer a hole. The erect posture (unlike reptiles and pelycosaurs whose posture was sprawling) evolved in the Middle Permian by therapsids. The secondary palate also evolved by therapsids at the same time (the therocephalians had both of these traits). Mammalian hair also evolved in the Middle Permian, probably evolved from scales. Pre-mammalian ears began evolving in the late Permian to early Triassic to their current state, as three tiny bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) inside the skull; accompanied by the transformation of the lower jaw into a single bone. Other animals, including reptiles and pre-mammalian synapsids and therapsids, have several bones in the lower jaw, some of which are used for hearing; and a single ear-bone in the skull, the stapes. This transition is evidence of mammalian evolution from reptilian beginnings: from a single ear bone, and several lower jaw bones (for example the sailback pelycosaur, Dimetrodon) to progressively smaller "hearing jaw bones" (for example the cynodont, Probainognathus), and finally (possibly with Morganucodon, but definitely with Hadrocodium), true mammals with three ear bones in the skull and a single lower jaw bone. Hence pelycosaurs and cynodonts are sometimes called "mammal-like reptiles", but this is strictly incorrect as these two are not reptiles but synapsids.
The earliest-known species seen to be mammal-like is the megazostrodon, which evolved toward the end of the Triassic period. It had evolved to possess fur, be warm-blooded, and was the first animal to have mammary glands, the defining feature of mammals. It is also believed to be nocturnal, for which a warm-blooded nature is necessary. However, it still bore young by laying reptile-like leathery eggs.
During the Mesozoic Era, mammals diversified into four main groups: multituberculates (Allotherium), monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. Multituberculates went extinct during the Oligocene, about 30 million years ago, but the three other mammal groups are all represented today. Most early mammals remained small and shrew-like throughout the Mesozoic, but rapidly developed into larger more diverse forms following the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 65 mya.
The names "Prototheria", "Metatheria" and "Eutheria" expressed the theory that Placentalia were descendants of Marsupialia, which were in turn descendants of Monotremata, but this theory has been refuted. However, Eutheria and Metatheria are often used in paleontology, especially with regards to mammals of the Mesozoic.
A series of vertebrate animal lineages is listed below. All of these groups predate mammals, and are close relatives.
- Jawless fish: Cambrian period to mid Ordovician periods
- Bony fish: mid-Ordovician period to late Devonian period
- Amphibians: late Devonian period to early Carboniferous period
- Reptiliomorpha: Early Carboniferous period
- Pelycosaurs (synapsids, or "mammal-like reptiles"): late Carboniferous period to very early Triassic period
- Therapsids: Early Permian-Cretaceous (includes dicynodonts, dinocephalia, etc.)
- Cynodonts: Late Permian-Middle Cretaceous (non-mammalian)
- Mammaliformes: Mid-Triassic to Early Oligocene (includes non-therian mammals)
Mammals appear in the mid-Jurassic period, and persist to the present (as Monotremes, Metatheria, and Eutheria)
In the Mesozoic
Evolutionary biology has long held that most early mammals were tiny shrew-like animals that fed on insects. However, in January 2005, the journal Nature reported the discovery of two 130 million year old fossils of Repenomamus, one more than a meter in length, the other having remains of a baby dinosaur in its stomach (Nature, Jan. 15, 2005 ). And the 2004 discovery in China of a 164 million year old 50 cm long aquatic mammal-like fossil of a thus far unknown species, dubbed Castorocauda, by a team led by Dr. Ji Qiang of Nanjing University and the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, was reported in February 2006 in the journal Science (Science, Feb. 24, 2006 ).
The earliest mammals include:
- Adelobasileus: mid-Triassic
- Megazostrodon: late Triassic and early Jurassic
- Eozostrodon: late Triassic and early Jurassic
- Sinoconodon: early Jurassic
- Hadrocodium: early Jurassic
- Fruitafossor: late Jurassic
In the Paleocene
During the next 8 million years, the Paleocene period (64–58 mya), mammals exploded into the ecological niches left by the extinction of the dinosaurs. Small rodent-like mammals still dominated, but medium and larger-sized mammals evolved.
- Ptilodus: multituberculate
- Pucadelphys andinus: an opossum-like marsupial
- Purgatorius: a primate-like mammal, placental
- Ectoconus: an early hoofed mammal, placental
George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" (AMNH Bulletin v. 85, 1945) was the original source for the taxonomy listed here. Simpson laid out a systematics of mammal origins and relationships that was universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, and the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself, partly through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work gradually made Simpson's classification outdated, it remained the closest thing to an official classification of mammals.
Standardized textbook classification
A somewhat standardized classification system has been adopted by most current mammalogy classroom textbooks. The following taxonomy of extant and recently extinct mammals is from Vaughan et al. (2000).
- Subclass Prototheria - monotremes: platypus and echidnas
- Subclass Theria - live-bearing mammals
In 1997, the mammals were comprehensively revised by Malcolm C. McKenna and Susan K. Bell, which has resulted in the "McKenna/Bell classification".
McKenna and Bell, Classification of Mammals: Above the species level, (1997) is the most comprehensive work to date on the systematics, relationships, and occurrences of all mammal taxa, living and extinct, down through the rank of genus. The new McKenna/Bell classification was quickly accepted by paleontologists. The authors work together as paleontologists at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. McKenna inherited the project from Simpson and, with Bell, constructed a completely updated hierarchical system, covering living and extinct taxa that reflects the historical genealogy of Mammalia.
The McKenna/Bell hierarchical listing of all of the terms used for mammal groups above the species includes extinct mammals as well as modern groups, and introduces some fine distinctions such as legions and sublegions (ranks which fall between classes and orders) that are likely to be glossed over by the layman.
The published re-classification forms both a comprehensive and authoritative record of approved names and classifications and a list of invalid names.
Extinct groups are represented by a dagger (†).
- Subclass Prototheria: monotremes: platypuses and echidnas
- Subclass Theriiformes: live-bearing mammals and their prehistoric relatives
- Infraclass †Allotheria: multituberculates
- Infraclass †Triconodonta: triconodonts
- Infraclass Holotheria: modern live-bearing mammals and their prehistoric relatives
- Supercohort Theria: live-bearing mammals
- Cohort Marsupialia: marsupials
- Cohort Placentalia: placentals
- Magnorder Xenarthra: xenarthrans
- Magnorder Epitheria: epitheres
- Grandorder Anagalida: lagomorphs, rodents, and elephant shrews
- Grandorder Ferae: carnivorans, pangolins, †creodonts, and relatives
- Grandorder Lipotyphla: insectivorans
- Grandorder Archonta: bats, primates, colugos, and treeshrews
- Grandorder Ungulata: ungulates
- Supercohort Theria: live-bearing mammals
Molecular classification of placentals
Molecular studies based on DNA analysis have suggested new relationships among mammal families over the last few years. Most of these findings have been independently validated by Retrotransposon presence/absence data. The most recent classification systems based on molecular studies have proposed four groups or lineages of placental mammals. Molecular clocks suggest that these clades diverged from early common ancestors in the Cretaceous, but fossils have not been found to corroborate this hypothesis. These molecular findings are consistent with mammal zoogeography:
Following molecular DNA sequence analyses, the first divergence was that of the Afrotheria 110–100 mya. The Afrotheria proceeded to evolve and diversify in the isolation of the African-Arabian continent. The Xenarthra, isolated in South America, diverged from the Boreoeutheria approximately 100–95 mya. According to an alternative view, the Xenarthra has the Afrotheria as closest allies, forming the Atlantogenata as sistergroup to Boreoeutheria. The Boreoeutheria split into the Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires between 95 and 85 mya; both of these groups evolved on the northern continent of Laurasia. After tens of millions of years of relative isolation, Africa-Arabia collided with Eurasia, exchanging Afrotheria and Boreoeutheria. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama linked South America and North America, which facilitated the exchange of mammal species in the Great American Interchange. The traditional view that no placental mammals reached Australasia until about 5 million years ago when bats and murine rodents arrived has been challenged by recent evidence and may need to be reassessed. These molecular results are still controversial because they are not reflected by morphological data, and thus not accepted by many systematists. Further there is some indication from Retrotransposon presence/absence data that the traditional Epitheria hypothesis, suggesting Xenarthra as the first divergence, might be true.
- Clade Atlantogenata
- Group I: Afrotheria
- Clade Afroinsectiphilia
- Clade Paenungulata
- Group II: Xenarthra
- Order Xenarthra: sloths and anteaters (Neotropical) and armadillos (Neotropical and Nearctic)
- Group I: Afrotheria
- Clade Boreoeutheria
- Group III: Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates)
- Superorder Euarchonta
- Superorder Glires
- Group IV: Laurasiatheria
- Order Insectivora: moles, hedgehogs, shrews, solenodons
- Order Chiroptera: bats (cosmopolitan)
- Order Cetartiodactyla: cosmopolitan; includes former orders Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) and Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including pigs, hippopotamus, camels, giraffe, deer, antelope, cattle, sheep, goats).
- Order Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates, including horses, donkeys, zebras, tapirs, and rhinoceroses.
- Clade Ferae
- Group III: Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates)
In light of all the options available, the following classification system has been adopted for use in related articles.
- Subclass/Order Monotremata: egg-laying mammals
- Subclass Marsupialia: marsupials
- Order Didelphimorphia: New World opossums
- Order Paucituberculata: shrew opossums
- Order Microbiotheria: Monito del Monte
- Order Dasyuromorphia: marsupial carnivores
- Order Notoryctemorphia: marsupial mole
- Order Peramelemorphia: bandicoots and bilbies
- Order Diprotodontia: koalas, wombats, kangaroos, possums, etc.
- Subclass Placentalia
- Order Xenarthra: sloths, anteaters, armadillos
- Superorder Glires
- Superorder Euarchonta:
- Order Insectivora: shrews, moles, hedgehogs, etc.
- Order Chiroptera: bats
- Order Carnivora: dogs, cats, weasels, seals, etc.
- Order Pholidota: pangolins
- Superorder Ungulata: ungulates
- Bergsten, Johannes. February 2005. "A review of long-branch attraction". Cladistics 21:163–193. (pdf version)
- Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine.Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, July 2006. pp. 1-46.
- McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
- Nowak, Ronald M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1936 pp. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
- Simpson, George Gaylord. 1945. "The principles of classification and a classification of mammals". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 85:1–350.
- William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348-2351 , 14 December 2001.
- Springer, Mark S., Michael J. Stanhope, Ole Madsen, and Wilfried W. de Jong. 2004. "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree". Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19:430–438. (pdf version)
- Vaughan, Terry A., James M. Ryan, and Nicholas J. Capzaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy: Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, 565 pp. ISBN 0-03-025034-X (Brooks Cole, 1999)
- Wilson, Don E., and Deeann M. Reeder (eds). 1993. Mammal Species of the World, 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1206 pp. ISBN 1-56098-217-9
- Jan Ole Kriegs, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91.
- Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds) Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
- List of mammals
- List of regional mammals lists
- List of prehistoric mammals
- New mammal species
- Mammal classification
- North American Fossil Mammal Systematics Database.
- Paleocene Mammals, a site covering the rise of the mammals
- Evolution of Mammals, a brief introduction to early mammals
- The Evolution of Mesozoic Mammals, a Rough Sketch, an informal introduction
- Carnegie Museum of Natural History, some discoveries of early mammal fossils
- Mammal Taxonomy, database of mammals of the world, updated each month
- High-Resolution Images of various Mammalian Brains
- Mammal Species, collection of information sheets about various mammal species
- Mammal Species of the World, searchable online version of 2nd edition (1993) of Mammal Species of the World
- Summary of molecular support for Epitheria
- Marine Mammals of the World - An overview of all marine mammals, including descriptions, multimedia and a key
- Mikko's Phylogeny Archive
- European Mammal Atlas EMMA from Societas Europaea Mammalogica
Placentalia: Afrosoricida · Macroscelidea · Tubulidentata · Hyracoidea · Proboscidea · Sirenia · Cingulata · Pilosa · Scandentia · Dermoptera · Primates · Rodentia · Lagomorpha · Insectivora · Chiroptera · Pholidota · Carnivora · Perissodactyla · Artiodactyla · Cetacea